The pulling effect of the hottest highway investme

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Driving effect of highway investment on national economy guide: road infrastructure construction can not only effectively improve local traffic conditions and provide convenience for people's life and economic exchanges, but also play an obvious role in promoting the development of national economy. According to the analysis of relevant experts, highway investment and construction can not only directly create employment opportunities

the construction of road infrastructure can not only effectively improve the local traffic conditions and provide convenience for people's life and economic exchanges, but also play an obvious role in promoting the economic development of China. According to the analysis of relevant experts, highway investment and construction can not only directly create employment opportunities and drive the improvement of the economic benefits of the building materials industry, but also have a lasting indirect impact on the road transportation industry, automobile repair industry, real estate industry and other fields. In some areas, it may promote the formation of new economic belts. Next, we will make a brief analysis on the impact of highway investment

I. The first round pulling effect of highway investment industry

the highway investment industry can first directly provide employment opportunities. According to relevant analysis, every 100 million yuan of highway investment creates or retains 2000 employment opportunities for the highway construction industry, while the corresponding increase in employment opportunities for departments that directly or indirectly provide products for highway construction has reached 2.43 times that of the highway construction industry. In addition, highway investment can also produce a very obvious multiplier effect, that is, increase the investment by 1 unit. The pulling effect of the increased income from highway construction on consumption growth is: GDP increases by 2.63 units. For example, in 1998, the state increased the highway investment from 120billion yuan to 160billion yuan, and the contribution rate of the driven demand to the total economic output of that year will reach more than 2.5%

II. The two-round pulling effect of highway investment (I) overview of the two-round pulling effect of highway investment

after the completion of the highway, promoting the development of the highway transportation industry and promoting the development of relevant industries is the pulling effect of the second part of highway investment. The pulling effect of this part is the embodiment of the long-term economic benefits of highway construction and the guarantee of the pulling effect of the first part. If there is no benefit of the second part, the pulling effect of the first part is not tenable. Therefore, the impact on highway construction investment must be studied together with the second round of pulling, comprehensive analysis and dialectical understanding

the second round of driving after the highway is opened to traffic, that is, the driving effect of highway use on the national economy is reflected in the following major industries:

1 Road transport industry: including passenger transport industry, freight transport industry, transport service industry, automobile maintenance industry, handling and loading industry

2. Commerce: new roads will be built to connect the commodity market and form commodity circulation along the highway

3. Industrial belt along the highway: for the convenience of transportation, many factories and enterprises have set up enterprises close to the highway. (2) because the jaws of material testing machines are often used in areas close to the highway, the industrial belt along the highway is formed

4. Real estate: the contents of points 1, 2 and 3 above will certainly promote the development of real estate along the highway and promote the appreciation of land price

5. The development of highway transportation industry and other industries drives the rolling development of a series of related industries such as automobile manufacturing industry

6. Highways connecting tourist attractions will stimulate the development of tourism

(II). The pulling effect of highway investment on highway transportation industry

the direct effect of the highway after it is completed and opened to traffic is the highway transportation benefit, and other benefits are derived from this benefit. When a highway is completed, its traffic capacity is reached, and its transportation design benefits are achieved

the traffic efficiency and benefit of highway are based on its carrying capacity and economic speed per hour. The potential of highway and highway transportation is huge. For example, there was only one highway from Hangzhou to Ningbo via Shaoxing. In recent years, there have been five parallel highways in Shaoxing, including one expressway and two national highways. The traffic density and average speed of the five roads meet the design requirements, solving the problem of traffic jam day and night. Now the transportation speed of the Shaoxing section between Hangzhou and Ningbo has been increased by about three times. In the past, it took more than six hours to drive from Hangzhou to Ningbo, but now it takes only two hours. As the driving speed increases, the transportation time value also increases correspondingly, and the transportation time value inevitably includes the transportation value, in which the quantity often depends on the goods and people, and generally it can be recognized that the year-on-year growth; The time requirements for important materials are strict, such as the agreed arrival time for market and foreign trade, and the benefits of the growth of transportation speed are more significant. In addition, the increase in vehicle speed reduces the transit time of goods, which means that the capital turnover rate of these goods is also correspondingly increased, which makes businesses indirectly benefit from it

in addition to increasing the direct benefits of transportation vehicles, the increase of highway mileage will inevitably promote the growth of vehicle capacity and transportation volume. After the increase of highway mileage, the traffic density of vehicles will remain balanced, so the increase of vehicle capacity will be greater than that of highway mileage. An analysis based on the data of Zhejiang: in the past 15 years, the highway mileage in Zhejiang has increased from 1905 kilometers in 1980 to 3306.7 kilometers in 1995. The automobile ownership and total road transportation have also increased significantly. The average annual growth of highways is 5%, the average annual growth of transport capacity is 41% for passenger cars and 59% for freight cars. According to statistics, the number of automobiles in Zhejiang Province increased from 32 passenger cars in 1980 to 2382 passenger cars and 17379 freight cars in 1995, and the number of tractors increased from 5943 to 285100 in 1980. Take down the broken specimens and tightly align the broken specimens to the same one; Over the past 15 years, the volume of automobile freight transport has increased from 2.05 million tons and 66.05 million ton kilometers in 1980 to 12.34 million tons and 47.77 million ton kilometers in 1990. The volume of passenger transport has increased from 17.33 million people and 31.73 million person kilometers in 1980 to 59.03 million people and 225.594 million person kilometers in 1995, an increase of 50%, 61%, 16% and 40% respectively

highway transportation includes five branches, whose benefits are self-contained and interrelated. The development of highway transportation industry will inevitably drive the development of automobile repair industry, handling and loading industry; Drive the development of supporting transportation industries such as station service industry, cargo handling and consignment industry, warehousing and tally, transportation information industry, intermodal transport industry, parking and refueling service industry. The five major highway transportation sub industries form an industry system that promotes each other

research shows that every 100 million yuan of highway investment can receive about 100million yuan of transportation station and yard facilities investment and transportation capacity investment; After the highway is completed and opened to traffic, if it meets the design standard of highway traffic volume, it will obtain a return on highway investment of more than 20% and a highway transportation income equivalent to 30% of the highway investment every year; Every 100 million yuan of highway investment will create about employment opportunities in the second round of driving. Therefore, the driving effect of highway construction on the transportation capacity is very strong, and the growth of transportation benefits and the increasing trend of transportation capacity will require the highway capacity to continue to expand, so that the tensile testing machine can continue to stretch the standard tensile samples, so as to adapt to the growing demand of highway transportation and form a virtuous circle

(III) long term benefits of highway investment - the relevant chain effect of the pulling effect of highway transportation

after the completion of the highway, it will directly stimulate the development of highway transportation and will have a huge chain effect on related industries

1. Drive the development of automobile manufacturing and related industries. The development of highway transportation will drive the automobile manufacturing industry and the development of related steel industry, machinery industry and high-tech application industries. The development of American economy has gone this way. Good road conditions, increased actual use frequency of each vehicle, and accelerated the upgrading of vehicles, which is another major factor in the demand potential of vehicles. This factor will also produce the indirect pulling effect of highway investment

2. Drive the development of highway industrial belt

Zhejiang economists put forward the economic development strategy of building industrial belt along the highway. This strategy is playing a great role in adjusting the industrial structure, making full use of the advantages of highway convenience and improving industrial benefits. Rizhao City, Shandong Province, relying on the domestic road traffic network, has vigorously developed the road economy, initially formed an economic development pattern along the road, built an "economic corridor" along the road, built more than 10 commodity trading markets, more than 20 industrial parks and 4 storage and transportation transfer points along the road, driven the development of catering, repair, refueling and other related industries, and formed a unique coastal tourism line. Zhejiang has also used this strategy to establish 4488 commodity trading markets along the highway extension, with a turnover of 279.8 billion yuan, of which Keqiao light textile city and Yiwu small commodity market both have an annual turnover of more than 15billion yuan. Because NCM and NCA combine the advantages of LiCoO2, LiNiO2 and limno2/LiAlO2, these markets form a transportation network, market network and related industry network connecting the whole country along the line. The advantages of the highway industrial belt are as follows: (1) the transportation speed of raw materials and products is accelerated, links are reduced, and the turnover speed of working capital is accelerated, which has relatively increased investment. (2) The transportation network and market network are connected as a whole. The highway enables the production and sales of products to form an industrial production chain, an information chain, a commodity circulation chain and a transportation chain of various transportation modes, so as to give full play to the network system effect of social production and consumption. (3) Give full play to the comprehensive economic benefits of supporting large, medium and small cities linked by highways. Most developed countries abroad take the road of centralized economic development in big cities. China's urban and rural layout has its own characteristics, and can not completely follow the foreign model. China has a long history of economic development for thousands of years, forming a scattered, relatively uniform structure of small and medium-sized towns, with a relatively uniform population distribution. Roads connect many large, medium and small towns together, forming a Chinese style passenger and cargo flow network. Since the reform and opening up, large, medium and small towns have radiated along the cross transportation lines of highways, giving full play to the distribution function of various towns with different equivalents. The huge potential of China's township enterprises is also based on this urban structure and highway structure. (4) Highway is an important circulation link of cross regional and cross industry massive economic structure. The forming area of highway industrial belt must be a high-speed economic growth area. The Shanghai Economic Zone of Shanghai, Zhejiang and Jiangsu is based on dense highways. 3. driving the development of tourism

the investment in highway construction enables the tourism industry to share joint and several benefits. The development of highway construction creates conditions for the development of tourism. Many tourist attractions come from nature and have little investment. Investing in roads means investing in tourism. Ningbo, Shaoxing and other cities have put forward the road development strategy of "one hour economic zone, two hours tourism zone", that is, within the municipal area, you can reach all counties in one hour and all tourist spots in two hours, which is a typical example of road construction promoting the development of tourism

(IV) the increased income from the second round of road investment leads to the increase of consumer expenditure, resulting in the multiplier effect of final demand. The multiplier effect of the first round of road investment is often short-term, while the multiplier effect of the second round of road investment is long-term. The multiplier formula is: investment multiplier =1/(1- marginal propensity to consume) =1/marginal propensity to save

the highway traffic volume has a gradual formation process. After the highway construction project is completed and opened to traffic, the multiplier effect will occur immediately. The multiplier value will gradually increase within years after the highway is completed and gradually stabilize when it reaches the full saturation peak. The multiplier value of the original highway will reach a new height after the re investment and expansion to improve the grade and capacity. The investment in the first phase of highway construction is still increasing

the industries involved in the pulling effect of highway investment and highway transportation investment include: automobile manufacturing industry and automobile parts processing industry; Oil and sky

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