Function and making method of the standard sample

2022-08-01
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Functions and production methods of flue-cured tobacco standard samples

at present, the determination of flue-cured tobacco quality mainly depends on human senses (eye view, hand touch, nose smell). In the process of tobacco purchase, there are only text standards, which are difficult to implement. Only physical samples can accurately express the content of text standards. The physical standard sample is formulated on the basis of the text standard, which is the concrete embodiment of the text standard and the physical sample of the text standard. Therefore, the physical standard sample plays an important role in understanding the spirit of the flue-cured tobacco standard, mastering the grading requirements of the standard, distinguishing the grade of tobacco leaves and unifying the purchasing vision. The physical standard sample is the certificate of inspection and grade verification, and is one of the bases for tobacco purchase, industrial and commercial tobacco handover and acceptance

there is a detailed discussion on the basic functions of tobacco classification in the flue-cured tobacco standard. The author only talks about his personal understanding of the basic functions of tobacco standard samples from the perspective of production and management. Our city has firmly grasped the "bull nose" of project investment

1 Tobacco leaf standard sample is a reference for fair purchase and accurate grading by grass-roots purchasing units and tobacco leaf allocation units. Tobacco companies and grass-roots tobacco purchasing stations can approximately measure the fatigue curve and roughly estimate the fatigue limit in the annual tobacco purchasing. They should refer to the standard sample of tobacco for several times, balance and unify the purchasing standards, so that the grass-roots tobacco purchasing stations can purchase and store the tobacco according to the real value price of the tobacco itself, and ensure the interests of farmers, enterprises and the country. When receiving a batch of tobacco leaves, the receiving personnel of the transfer in unit shall also reasonably grade the tobacco leaves by strictly referring to the imitation standard samples to avoid being too high or too low, so as to ensure the economic interests of enterprises and commercial units

2. Tobacco leaf standard sample is a "fair scale" for tobacco farmers to sell tobacco leaves. The purchasing department insisted on sample purchasing at the purchasing site, so that the tobacco farmers could put their tobacco leaves into their seats. They had a good idea at the time of selling and had no opinions at the time of delivery and after-sales, avoiding many unnecessary misunderstandings and contradictions

3. Tobacco leaf standard sample is the legal standard to deal with grade disputes. In the process of tobacco purchase and handover of tobacco industry and commerce, when there is a dispute over the grade of tobacco, it should be decided based on the standard sample of tobacco, so as to properly solve the grade dispute between industry and commerce, and between tobacco farmers and staff at the purchase site

4. Tobacco leaf standard sample is the "baton" for tobacco farmers to produce tobacco leaves in the coming year. In the next year's tobacco production, tobacco farmers will consciously summarize the "gains" and "losses" in the previous year's tobacco cultivation, fertilization, management, harvesting, baking, grading and other processes according to the tobacco standard samples. In view of the deficiencies in each link, they will consciously carry out relevant technical consultation with tobacco planting experts or tobacco technicians, learn from others' good practices, and develop scientific and reasonable technical methods

combined with the practice and experience of many years' participation in the preparation of tobacco leaf standard samples, the author believes that the following points should be mastered in the preparation of tobacco leaf standard samples

one is to select wool samples with a wide range

the selection and preparation of wool samples is the basis for making tobacco standard samples. Without sufficient, diversified and representative standard sample raw materials, it is difficult to make a set of tobacco standard samples that meet the requirements of the "national standard". When selecting wool samples, the key lies in the wide selection range, sufficient quantity of tobacco leaves and sufficient representativeness. All tobacco leaves of different parts, colors, lengths and maturity should be selected into the wool samples. In this way, it is convenient to make a full grade tobacco leaf standard sample

second, choose again carefully

because the appearance quality of tobacco leaves is continuous, and the color characteristics of tobacco leaves at different cultivation and modulation levels and other appearance characteristics sometimes show different regularity, a considerable number of appearance characteristics of tobacco leaves are specious and difficult to determine. If these tobacco leaves are selected into the sample, it is easy to confuse the position, color limit and grade limit, and finally make a set of failed samples. Therefore, after selecting the wool sample, it is necessary to carry out secondary sorting. In the process of secondary sorting, special tobacco leaves should be removed to lay the foundation for the next grouping

the third is to determine the position and compare the color

after secondary sorting, the wool samples shall be selected by groups first. According to the position and color of tobacco leaves and the main characteristics of sub groups of tobacco leaves. The focus of grouping is the position and color, and grouping the position is the key. If you find the wrong position, you will make hundreds of mistakes. The parts are mainly divided into venation and leaf shape. At the same time, they are distinguished by referring to color, thickness and leaf surface characteristics, and can be divided into lower, middle and upper leaves. Then, according to the depth of the color, it is easier to distinguish the color in the same part. According to the characteristics of the part and color, the lower lemon yellow and orange groups are divided; Middle lemon yellow and orange group; Upper lemon yellow, orange and upper red brown color groups. In the case of higher production level, the mature leaf group should be divided; According to the text requirements of the "national standard", five sub groups are divided according to the characteristics of the sub group tobacco leaves: upper variegated, middle and lower variegated, smooth leaf, slightly green and green yellow

four are multifactorial and graded

there are six kinds of quality factors in tobacco leaves, namely maturity, leaf structure, identity, oil content, color and length. How to correctly master and apply these six quality factors in the classification process, the author's experience is: maturity is divided into categories. All mature leaves are placed in the positive group (except x4f and x4l), and vice versa. The leaf structure is closely related to maturity and can be ignored. Oil content and chromaticity are the most important. Oil content and color are the most significant factors to distinguish the internal and external quality of tobacco leaves. The oil is divided into four grades: more, more, slightly and less, and the chromaticity is divided into five grades: thick, strong, medium, weak and light. If different grades are separated, the general grade is separated. The leaf length shall be different, and shall be shortened from high to low. Note that the leaf length of the minimum and maximum limit of a grade of quality shall not be lower than the minimum standard requirements of this grade. Parts can also be graded. Part is the first factor of grouping and sometimes the key factor of grading. Some parts have certain correspondence with grades

fifth, the boundary is clear and the quantity is sufficient

among the well graded tobacco leaves, the medium quality tobacco leaves were selected first, and then the better (upper limit) and worse (lower limit) tobacco leaves were selected. In the standard sample of synthetic tobacco leaves, the medium leaves of each grade of tobacco leaves should be the main, and the roughly equal better and worse leaves in the same grade should be reasonably matched; There should be a certain difference in the quality of tobacco leaves between adjacent grades, and the boundaries should be clear. We often see that some grade standard samples formulated by individual units have only 4~7 leaves or even less, and such standard samples are lack of representativeness. The national standard stipulates that the number of leaves per standard sample of flue-cured tobacco is 20~25. The number of blades of each grade standard sample must meet this requirement, otherwise it is not representative

Stop testing the data to ensure that the product stops consuming according to the expected results. When the data quality control fails

(excerpted from oriental tobacco News)

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